Complete Mosquito Repellent & Insecticide Information

3/20/2017 - Optimized for Firefox 52.0.1

COPYRIGHT 2009 thru 2017 - David R. Woodsmall

I am NOT a Doctor - Consult a Travel Doctor

I Have NO medical training - YOU Do or do Not do things at YOUR OWN risk

TWEET These web pages are generally arranged in Alphabetic Order, by Subject, with an INDEX at the end of each web page. Find your desired subject and double click on it. WARNING - I WOULD NOT, PERSONALLY, EVER WEAR OR EVEN BUY CLOTHING THAT DOES NOT FULLY DISCLOSE WHAT INSECT REPELLENT AND/OR INSECTICIDE IS USED ON THE CLOTHES. We treated the outside of our outer clothing with PERMETHRIN Insecticide - keep off of your skin - to kill insects on contact. COLORS to WEAR and to AVOID and Other Precautions AFRICA - Traveler's Health Information MALARIA - especially in Kenya & South Africa BITES CLOTHES - Treating with Permethrin RECOMMENDED INSECT REPELLENTS REPELLENTS & INSECTICIDES TIPS on how to use Insect Repellents WHAT WE USED IN AFRICA and no one got any bites WHERE to buy these insect repellents and killers ZAPPERS / SWATTERS Malaria deaths hugely underestimated - Lancet

MOSQUITOS (American) / MOSQUITOES (English) - General Information

Mosquitoes - British (and most of the non-USA world) spelling Mosquitos - An American spelling of Mosquitoes - either is acceptable in the USA. "Mosquitoes" seems to replacing "mosquitos" in the USA. Mozzies = Mosquitos (British: Mosquitoes) Mozzy = slang for Mosquito MOSQUITO INFORMATION "Black is the most attractive color to mosquitoes, followed closely by red. Greys and blues have neutral attractancy. Khaki, green, light khaki, and yellow are not attractive, with white being the least attractive color to mosquitoes." - mosquito.org Lab trials indicate protection time can be reduced up to 4 times if sweating is a factor. In other words, if you sweat much, you will need to re-apply insect repellent Four (4) times as often as if you do not sweat. Mosquito-Borne Diseases Mosquito information, their biology, life and how to control them Mosquito Information - barnstablecountyhealth Mosquitoes - Wikipedia Mosquito Borne Disease - Wikipedia

TIPS FOR USING INSECT REPELLENTS

The solvents in DEET can Disolve your plastic prescription glasses, sunglasses, watch "crystals", watch bands. DEET will damage most synthetic clothing. DEET can discolor cotton and other natural fibers. DEET can poison you - DEET POISONING. Do not breathe fumes from DEET - so don't put it under your nose. Do not get DEET in your eyes. If you use DEET, be very careful about not rubbing your eyes. DEET is NOT a good Tick repellent. See TICKS for more information about TICK problems and solutions. If you get one drop of DEET on your fishing gear, and if it gets into the water, will chase the fish away from you. RID, while it does contain some DEET, can be put directly on your skin - it feels good and it contains moisturizers and other healing ingredients in it. My advice, if you know that mosquitoes love you - wear more than one type of insect repellent - for example, both RID and Picaridin. Or a Light amount DEET, Picaridin (KBR3023, or Bayrepel) and repellents containing OLE. You will probably need to reapply insect repellent: 1] If you've been in the water, 2] If you sweat a lot, and had it on your skin, 3] It's efficacy expires (how long the product is effective before you need to reapply it You can find the efficacy (if they do not state it on the label, by looking up the ingredient on this web page). If there are any instructions on how often you can safely reapply the insect repellent, HEED THESE.

TIPS for using Insect Repellent when SUNBATHING or on the BEACH

Consider using a repellent on wrist bands (as stated above) - remember to move the wrist bands occasionally, if you are concerned about having an even tan. You could even wear large wrist sweat bands as ankle bands. If you are wearing a hat, attach cloth moistened with insect repellent to your hat - if using DEET, remember it could discolor / ruin your hat, depending on from what the hat is made. You will probably need to reapply insect repellent: 1] If you've been in the water, 2] If you sweat a lot, and had it on your skin, 3] It's efficacy expires (how long the product is effective before you need to reapply it You can find the efficacy (if they do not state it on the label, by looking up the ingredient on this web page). If there are any instructions on how often you can safely reapply the insect repellent, HEED THESE.

TIPS for using Insect Repellents when on Safari

When we expected really bad swarms of mosquitoes, Tsetse flies or other biting pests, we took small pieces of cloth, similar in size to a hankerchief, and tied them around our ankles and neck, after splashing some 100% DEET on the outside layer. Be careful as the solvents in DEET can melt plastic glasses, watches and synthetic materials. We tied a longer piece of cloth, similar to a bandana, around our safari hats, on top of the brim. This kept the critters out of our face and eyes, and we didn't have to breathe the repellent. This kept the DEET off of our skin, and allowed us to add additional bug repellent. We also had stretchable wrist "sweat bands", upon which we also sprayed DEET or some other good insect repellent (RID, DEET, Picaridin or OLE). We then wore the wristbands, which kept the biters away from our hands. You could even wear large wrist sweat bands as ankle bands, or tie material laced with insect repellent to your ankles. My advice, if you know that mosquitoes love you - wear more than one type of insect repellent - for example, both RID and Picaridin. Or a Light amount DEET, Picaridin (KBR3023, or Bayrepel) and repellents containing OLE. Some repellents contain Geraniol (extracted from Geraniums) would also be beneficial to add to other repellents. Not even 4 of 5 vultures would take raw meat from my hands when I was wearing a combination of RID and Picaridin.

WHAT WE EFFECTIVELY USED - NO BITES

We, a party of five, spent over a month in 6 African countries on various safaris and did not get bitten once by anything, and mosquitoes LOVE me. We used mostly a Combination of RID and Picaridin (KBR3023, or Bayrepel). In areas that we thought would be really bad, we also used DEET on hankerchief like material. In Botswana, riding on the backs of elephants through the brush is the ONLY time that we really saw lots of mosquitoes, and every time they drifted from the guide back towards us, they immediately reversed course away from us - a very exhilarating feeling. Four out of five vultures refused to eat raw meat from my hand. While very good, RID is more expensive, so you might consider using combinations of a low concentration of DEET, some Picaridin and a product containing OLE, if mozzies really like you.

Insect BITES - TREATING & IDENTIFYING

Identify the Spider and Bug Bite - Treatments How To Treat Common Bug Bites - About.com Mosquito Bites Tick Bites

Mosquito BITES - TREATING

Tips For Treating Mosquito Bites - DrGreene.com Mosquito Bites - Treatment & Prevention Tips How to Treat Mosquito Bites How to Treat a Mosquito Bite - VIDEO Mosquito Bites and Allergies - Allergic Reactions to Mosquito Bites Over 40 Mosquito Bite Itch Relief Tips - TipNut.com 11 Natural Remedies for Treating Mosquito Bites - Natural Health Mosquito Bite Treatment - Mosquito Bites - Insect Bites Mosquito Bites - Bite Treatment Mosquito Bite Treatment Mozzy bites - Forum - britishexpats.com After Bite After Bite Solace - PurpleTurtle

MOSQUITO REPELLENTS & INSECTICIDES

I have not yet researched this, but people swear that taking multiple B vitamins (prior and during your safari) make you less attractive to mosquitoes. Poisoning by Insecticides Protection Times of Insect Repellents Will Garlic, Bananas, Or Vitamin-B Repel Mosquitoes?: "There is no scientific evidence that eating garlic, vitamins, onions, or any other food will make a person repellent to mosquitoes. The attractant level of each individual to biting arthropods is based on a complex interaction of many chemical and visual signals. Certain foods in certain individuals may effect their individual attractiveness to biting arthropods, for better or for worse." - Mosquito Repellents - EDIS - ufl.edu EPA recommends the following precautions when using insect repellents 6 insect repellents get high marks - WebMD * Off Deep Woods Sportsmen II; 30% DEET; cost: $1.25 an ounce - THEY BITE ME, ANYWAY - DRW * Cutter Backwoods Unscented; 23% DEET; cost: $1.33 per ounce. * Off FamilyCare Smooth & Dry; 15% DEET; cost: $1.63 an ounce. * 3M Ultrathon Insect Repellant 8; 25% DEET; $1.67 per ounce. Contains 25% OR 33% DEET in a controlled (sloow) release polymer. Moisture resistant. 2 oz. tube. 3M Ultrathon Insect Repellent 12 Lotion - waterproof * Repel Plant Based Lemon Eucalyptus; active ingredient oil of lemon eucalyptus; cost: $1.94 an ounce. NOT TESTED NOR RECOMMENDED (because not tested) FOR USE OUTSIDE THE USA. lemon eucalyptus label specifies that they should not to be used on children under the age of three years. - SCROLL TO: EPA recommends the following precautions when using insect repellents: * Natrapel 8-Hour with picaridin; 20% picaridin; cost: $2.00 an ounce. "Both the Picaridin and the Polyethylene glycol are petroleum based (Oily) chemicals, which if left on for long periods may contribute to acne." - Tender Corp MY GROUP USED BOTH RID and NATRAPEL FOR 30 DAYS IN SIX AFRICAN COUNTRIES (Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Victoria Falls) - THE COMBINATION (all we can attest to) WORKED EXTREMELY WELL. NOTE that we seldom actually saw mosquitoes, going to Africa in early September. We did see that all the MANY mosquitoes in Botswana avoided us completely - While riding an elephant on a bush safari, We would notice the mosquitoes drift back to us, from the elephant guide (riding on the front of the elephant) and then the mosquitoes IMMEDIATELY reveresed course away from us when they drifted close to us. "On a good note Natrapel 8hr contains almost 30% ethyl alcohol which has a drying effect and is anti-bacterial. This may help negate any of the others bad side effects." - Tender Corp, the manufacturers of Natrapel. Natrapel's Site - ditchthedeet.com Natrapel, produced by the Tender Corporation. Javelina's Full Review: Natrapel Mosquito Repellents: What Works - WebMD Insect repellent - Wikipedia "For protection against mosquitoes, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control issued a statement in May 2008 recommending equally DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus and IR3535 for skin".

WHERE TO BUY INSECT REPELLENTS & KILLERS

You can buy this kind of stuff at almost any sporting goods store, including Big Five and REI. I suspect Sears would have some. While it may?? be cheaper elsewhere, REI really had the selection. Poor selection at many stores. We bought all of ours at REI (in the USA) (great selection) except for RID, which we bought online from the SafariStore in England (on online purchase). If you live in England, the PurpleTurtle has good prices for WHAT THEY SELL (they do not have RID, nor some other stuff I like, but they have a lot of stuff). Repellents at REI 4291 The Circle at North Hills Raleigh, NC 27609 (919) 571-5031 M-F 10 am - 9 pm Saturday 10 am - 9 pm Sunday 11 am - 6 pm PRICES AT MY LOCAL REI STORE IN JULY, 201O: 3M Ultrathon 25% DEET - 2 Oz - $ 10.50 Ben's 100% DEET (98.x%) 1.25 Oz - $ 6.00 Repel Lemon Euclyptus - 4 Oz $ 7.75 Repel Permethrin Clothing spray $ 6.75 (darn - I forget what size) Natrapel Picaridin 20% Insect Repellent - 3.5 Oz - $ 7.81 at store, $ 6.95 online Natrapel Picaridin 20% spray Sawyer Products - Insect Repellents HOME PAGE - Airline Approved Sawyer Jungle Juice 100% DEET (98.11%) - 2.5 Oz - $ 7.00 Sawyer Premium Permethrin (for Clothes, Netting) - 24 Oz - $ Sawyer Premium Sunblock with (IR3535) Insect Repellent - 3 oz - $ 8 SPF 30 - Hypoallergenic formula won't clog your pores.

ALLETHRIN - Repellent - a Pyrethroid

Used in "mosquito coils"

Allethrin Allethrin - Wikipedia Allethrin - Cornell EDU Allethrin Fact Sheet - PDF Allethrin - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory information EXTOXNET PIP - ALLETHRIN Trade names for allethrin include Alleviate, Pynamin, d-allethrin, d-cisallethrin, Bioallethrin, Esbiothrin, Pyresin, Pyrexcel, Pyrocide and trans-allethrin. allethrin data sheet Allethrin stereoisomers - Pesticides - US EPA

CATNIP (Nepetalactone) - Repellent

Do NOT use Catnip around wild cats, especially lions, tigers, bobcats,... Catnip Repllent - mosquitosolutions.com How to Make Catnip Mosquito Repellent - eHow.com Catnip as Mosquito Repellent

CITRIODIOL (Lemon Eucalyptus Oil)

Citriodiol is a natural extract derived from Lemon Eucalyptus Oil. Citriodiol is the active ingredient of Mosi-guard. Mosi-guard is well thought of for use by travelers to Africa. We have not used Mosi-guard (OLE). At the time of my research, there had not been enough published data about the use of OLE on Southern African mosquitoes, so I've recently added to my research on OLE. Mosi Guard Natural Insect Repellent. Contains Effective Citriodiol Amazon.com REVIEWS of Mosi-guard CITRIODIOL - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Efficacy studies - Citriodiol - p-menthane-3,8-diol Citriodiol dot com - FAQ Citriodiol - Natures most effective Insect Repellent - Citriodora Oil We did use Natrapel (20% Picaridin) ALONG with RID, and had great luck with the combination, on a 30 day, six African nation photo safari in September of 2010.

CITRONELLA - p-methane-3,8-diol - Repellent

I believe (my opinion) that Citronella is much too weak to do ME any good, but lots of people do burn Citronella candles near their outside location. Citronella is certainly too ineffective for a safari. Citronella has been proven to be of some benefit in repelling mosquitoes.

CONCEAL (Linalool 95.54%) - is an inhibitor, not a repellent

Conceal is supposed to block the the the ability of the mosquito to "smell" humans, so they can not target their victims. Linalool Summary - US EPA - Linalool Summary Document - PDF Conceal Candles Linalool - Wikipedia "linalool is also used by pest professionals as a flea & cockroach insecticide." "Between 5-7% of patients undergoing patch testing in Sweden were found to be allergic to the oxidized form of linalool." Linalool - Comprehensive data sheet - PDF LINALOOL - Skin Deep: Cosmetic Safety Reviews - cosmeticsdatabase Is Limonene and Linalool (Citrus Peel Extracts) safe around humans? "Contain insecticidal compounds that kill many insect pests, e.g., fire ants, and fleas, but may be of low toxicity to mammals". Linalool (3,7-Dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol) (128838) Fact Sheet Linalool, A Common Essential Oil Constituent, Shown to have Anti-cancer capabilities?

DEET - (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) - Mosquito Repellent

DEET eats through many artificial fiber fabrics. paints & plastics. (higher concentrations of) DEET can melt the plastic in your sunglasses. DEET - CORROSIVE / CORROSIVENESS / PLASTICIZER / MELTS THINGS Poisoning by DEET The more DEET you use (higher percentage of DEET), the more toxic it's effects. I suggest that you do not want to breathe the fumes (so don't put it where you will be breathing the vapor all day. Using a higher percentage of DEET does not increase it's effectiveness, but does lengthen the time between when you must re-apply it. If you decide to use DEET, I suggest that you take it with you, and re-apply it more often, rather than use a stronger dose. The reason people have problems with DEET based sprays is not the DEET so much as the solvent that is used to keep it in suspension so it can be sprayed or applied, it is the solvent that dissolves plastic watch straps, removes nail varnish and furniture varnish, and dissolves man -made fibres. I'm not anti-DEET but I'm not going to use the DEET based spray if I'm wearing Rohan or Lowe Alpine high-wicking gear, or if I'm wearing a Swatch. I'll use the natural formula repellents containing PMD (Citriodiol or Citrepel) such as Mosi Guard and Boots Own Brand Natural Repellent which are as effective but not quite as long lasting. - Doffcocker - TripAdvisor There are very effective insect-repellents that work as well as DEET, and are much safer - for example: OLE - Oil of Eucalyptus PICARIDIN DEET is an excellent mosquito repellent, but it is a fairly poor tick repellent. Fish will avoid even one drop of DEET in water, or on your fishing lure. Picaridin vs. DEET: Face-off The Insect Repellent DEET - Pesticides - US EPA DEET Side effects of - CDC.gov Includes brief contrast of Safety and Acceptability of Picaridin to DEET DEET and PICARIDIN, themselves, are NOT comedogenic, BUT most products containing either DEET or PICARIDIN ARE comedogenic (at least the ones I keep finding). These cases would suggest that it is prudent to wash DEET from the skin surface before sleeping DEET - GENERAL FACT SHEET - PDF - NPIC - National Pesticide Information Center DEET - Wikipedia DEET.com DEET - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory information

DEET - CORROSIVE / CORROSIVENESS - CAN EAT / MELT / DISOLVE THESE MATERIALS

I am not a chemist. I don't know if these things are true.

You use this information AT YOUR OWN RISK - I am not responsible.

I can not vouch that it is all true, but while examining the many internet forums about DEET. I read that DEET: Can Melt many forms of plastics, including your glasses, polycarbonate glasses, sunglasses, the screen on your GPS unit, some paints, "DEET is an effective solvent, and may dissolve some plastics, rayon, spandex, other synthetic fabrics, leather, and painted or varnished surfaces including nailpolish." - DEET - Wikipedia DEET will destroy nail polish and acrylic nails. We did observe DEET damage a plastic watch, while in South Africa. "DEET is a "plasticizer." It can have adverse affects on many synthetic fabrics (such as rayon or spandex), auto paint, watch crystals, varnished surfaces, golf-club grips, leather, plastic glasses frames and plastic. DEET will NOT damage cotton, wool or nylon". - About DEET - REI Watch crystals and plastic glasses lenses (polycarbonate?) and frames are often reported to be damaged. I found reports both ways for polyester (some say it is damaging, some say that DEET does not damage polyester. "Poycarbonate panels and mosquito repellant (Deep Woods with DEET) do not mix. I have seen the results of mistakingly spraying repellant on the greenhouse covering. It destroys it withjin a day. It turns milky then cracks." - Posted on Village GardenWeb Corrosive substance - Wikipedia      See also DEET POISONING

DEET SELLERS of

DEET Information (below) from this link Kevin Corr has posted a synopsis of the Consumer Reports research several times. Naturally, they tested only brands commonly found in the US. None-the-less, you can infer certain facts. According to: Kevin Corr, Cousumer Reports says: keeping in mind it's really nasty stuff that eats plastic. DEET eats through many artificial fiber fabrics & paints. The % of deet was a bigger factor than brand. They assigned a % score for comparison: 3M 98% deet = 92% score (but recommends to not use it!) Sawyer Jungle Juice 100 Insect Repellent - 98.11% DEET - REI They say "A little goes a long way so use sparingly - only 4 - 6 drops per application" Deep Woods Off 34% deet = 72% score Cutter 30% deet = 70% score Ben's 30% deet = 67% score Repel 20 % deet = 55% score Repel Sun & Bug 20% deet = 54% score Off 7% deet = 33% score They have tested the non deet ones too. Re- ConsumerReports.org Edited by: KevinCorr Insect Repellents with DEET - Amazon Avon Skin-So-Soft Bath Oil was found to protect for only about nine minutes - WebMD Avon SKIN SO SOFT Bug Guard Plus IR3535 EXPEDITION SPF 30 Pump Spray - Amazon SKIN SO SOFT Bug Guard Plus IR3535 - WebMD says protection from SKIN SO SOFT Bug Guard Plus IR3535 lasted for 23 MINUTES - (essentially useless as a repellent) - Sizing Up Mosquito Repellents - 2002. Avon SKIN SO SOFT Bug Guard Plus IR3535 EXPEDITION SPF 30 Pump Spray - rated a SEVEN by EWG It is both WebMD and Consumer Reports that state that Skin So Soft (all three types) doesn't last all that long (so just re-apply it more often - still not as good as Picaridin, RID, OLE nor Geraniol). Plus I would also use Permethrin to treat your clothes. And if Mozzies love you, I would really use more than one type of repellent. Here is a TripAdvisor link to people that have always depended on Skin-So_Soft, got the heck bitten out of them, and will not use skin-so-soft (for a repellent) again - SSS failed these users REPEL - 55% DEET - UK Repel 100 Deet Insect Repellent - 120ml - UK Adventure Medical Bens 30(%) Deet Repellent - Backcountry.com Ben's 30 Percent DEET Tick and Insect Repellent Wipes - Mountaingear.com

Diseases - Which Mosquitoes Carry Which Diseases

Aedes aegypti which spreads dengue and yellow fever Anopheles gambiae, which spreads malaria Culex quinquefasciatus, which spreads filariasis and West Nile virus

GERANIOL - derived from Geraniums

I have read HIGHLY Conflicting views on this ingredient (Geraniol). Please note that there may side-effects. Well, is appears that the concern is do not eat Geraniol or Geraniums. Geraniol is a naturally occurring scent ingredient found in various essential oils such as rose oil and citronella oil. GERANIOL - Fragrance Ingredient; MASKING; TONIC - cosmeticsdatabase Bug Band Is There Evidence that Geraniol Causes Allergic Contact Dermatitis? Efficacy of the Botanical Repellents Geraniol, Linalool, and Citronella Against Mosquitoes Non-Food Allergy - Geraniol Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and ..

GERANIUM - they extract GERANIOL from it

Please note that there may be side effects to Geranium. Please see GERANIOL (click here). HATS, SAFARI - Click here

All Terrain HERBAL ARMOR

Claims that itís 100% effective in repelling mosquitoes for up to two hours and 95.8% for three (so says the company) - All Terrain Co - that's a short time Does NOT contain any DEET The smell is not bad but it is strong. "The only thing I didn't like was the creamyness of the spray. It doesn't have a nice mist and spritz, it more or less shoots a stream into one place. You still have to touch it and rub it in." - Vitacost Oil of Soybean 11.5 % Oil of Citonella 10.0 % Oil of Peppermint 2.0 % Oil of Cedar 1.5 % Oil of Lemongrass 1.0 % Oil of Geranim 0.05 % Inert ingredients 73.95 % The only downside is that, for me at least, the product seems to attract bees. Reviews - REI Review: All Terrain Herbal Armor - Daily Hiker All Terrain Herbal Armor DEET-Free Natural Insect Repellent Spray xtupid review - WHAT other repellents? All Terrain Natural Herbal Armor Insect Repellent - Vitacost DEET Free Insect Repellent - All Terrain Herbal "Works better than Off brand repellents, but not as good as 3M Ultrathon repellent." "Although Herbal Armor works well, it has 2 downsides. First, it isnít waterproof. If you get just slightly wet, it will wash away, exposing your skin as an open invite to the blood thirsty mosquitoes and flies. And second, like most insect repellents, it wonít help at all late in the season when the mosquito hordes have gone dire and will ravenously feast on anything." - epinions

INSECTICIDE SELLERS (for use near people)

REI - Gear, Equipment and Clothing for an Outdoor Life Raleigh REI Store (3.4) miles 4291 The Circle at North Hills Raleigh, NC 27609 (919) 571-5031 The Safari Store - UK The Safari Store 99-109 Lavender Hill, London Tel +44 (0) 207 585 2040 Email steve@thesafaristore.co.uk Vermont's barre Army Navy AND CHECK YOUR USUAL STORES.

IR3535 is a synthetic insect repellent

3-[N-Butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester

IR3535 is labeled for use against mosquitoes, ticks, and biting flies - emedicine USDA Laboratories: "IR3535 provided only 6-75 minutes of complete protection against mosquito bites, and 25% IR3535 was 1/8-1/100 as effective as 25% DEET when tested against mosquitoes." EPA - IR3535 has been used as an insect repellent in Europe for 20 years with no substantial adverse effects R3535 is not harmful when ingested, inhaled, or used on skin. Eye irritation could occur if the chemical enters a person's eyes. IR3535 is an insect repellent found in some Avon Skin So Soft products. "IR3535 is a synthetic insect repellent that is additionally classified as biopesticide". 3-[N-Butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester (113509 ... CDC - Repellency of IR3535, KBR3023, para-menthane-3,8-diol, and DEET against SAND FLEAS Repellency of IR3535, KBR3023, para-menthane-3,8-diol, and Deet to FLORIDA MOSQUITOS (not African, South American,...) Prolonged Efficacy of IR3535 Repellents Against Mosquitoes and Blacklegged Ticks in North America Laboratory testing of the insect repellents IR3535 and DEET SEEMS TO CONTRADICT THE USDA? - Merck IR3535 Insect Repellent: tough on bugs, easy on you SKIN SO SOFT Bug Guard Plus IR3535 Gentle Breeze SPF 30 ... - Avon Company Amazon.com: Avon SKIN SO SOFT Bug Guard Plus IR3535 EXPEDITION SPF 30 Pump Spray

LYME DISEASE (carried by some ticks)

A bullís eye rash around a tick bite is a definitive indicator of Lyme Disease. This is how a tick bite infected with Lyme Disease looks - lindsayjm Lyme disease is a bacterial illness. In Africa, Lyme Disease is transmitted through the bite of Ornithodoros sonrai (mole tick). LYME DISEASE IN SOUTH AFRICA "Lower Mainland or U.S. seaboard where the Lyme disease-carrying tick I. pacificus is more prevalent - even though about less than one per cent have the Lyme disease bacteria at any given time". - Lyme Disease - bclocalnews The CDC says: Lyme disease (carried by ticks): Use repellents containing higher concentrations of DEET (at least 20%) and wear clothing treated with permethrin. What to do after a tick bite to prevent Lyme disease - uptodate Lyme disease - Wikipedia Lyme disease in sub-Saharan Africa is presently unknown, but evidence indicates it may occur in humans in this region. Is Lyme Disease Worldwide? Canada, Europe, UK, Sweden, Italy IRIN Africa - SENEGAL - Lyme disease: the forgotten scourge of West Africa Lyme disease - a new disease in southern Africa? - 1989 - nih.gov Lyme disease in South Africa - 1996 Lyme Disease, Rickettsia and Q Fever in South Africa - Facebook Lymes is a Growing Problem all Over The World - Africa, Asia and ... Lyme disease - CDC

MALARIA - Click here for information about MALARIA

METOFLUTHRIN - Insecticide repellent NOT applied to human skin

METOFLUTHRIN is CONTAINED IN OFF's INSECT REPELLENT FAN

RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF OFF's CLIP-ON INGREDIENT, METHOFLUTHIN

Metofluthrin, like other pyrethroids, is neurotoxic in rats, rabbits, and dogs - EPA. Poisoning by METOFLUTHRIN Consumer Reports just (August 2010) reviewed the OFF Clip-on and said it wasn't as effective as sprays (which sprays, I wonder?). Note that Pyrethoids are often used in Citronella Candles - ones you are probably using right now to repel misquitoes from your BBQ. Indented text is quoted from the link listed above it. Metofluthrin - fact sheet and risk assessment - EPA Metofluthrin - Registration of OFF! Insect Repellent Fan 19 symptoms of Metofluthrin Poisoning Chemical poisoning - Metofluthrin Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments Public Report 2007-6, Metofluthrin - PDF U.S. laboratory and field trials of metofluthrin - NIH.gov These results demonstrate that metofluthrin-treated emanators are highly effective at repelling mosquitoes. FIELD EVALUATION OF SPATIAL REPELLENCY OF METOFLUTHRIN IMPREGNATED ... - PDF Metofluthrin - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory Metofluthrin in New Mosquito repeller toxic to dogs - DoggySnaps The effects of sustained release metofluthrin on the biting ... In the room treated with metofluthrin the majority of mosquitoes died and a spillover effect into the neighboring room caused greater than one-third mortality of the mosquitoes. Metofluthrin could be used to prevent dengue transmission within a household - NOT SURE THAT IS SAFE. Field Evaluation of Repellency of Metofluthrin-Impregnated Plastic Strips Against Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes in Tanzania Very effective. Lethal and repellent effects of transfluthrin and metofluthrin What is the active ingredient metofluthrin? Buy Products Sell Chemicals Metofluthrin insecticides Metofluthrin

Mosi-guard (brand of OLE [Citriodiol])

Mosi-guard is an insect repellent containing an active ingredient from Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus (often called PMD). Mosi-guard is often praised by travelers to Africa, and is often available in African and English stores. At the time of my research, there had not been enough published data about the use of OLE on Southern African mosquitoes, so I just added to my OLE research. We have not used Mosi-guard, but we did use Natrapel, which contains the same active ingredient. Mosi-guard should give the same results as other OLE (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus) products at the same strength. The lemon eucalyptus label specifies that they should not to be used on children under the age of three years, BUT I see that Mosi-guard says it's OK for children over THREE MONTHS OLD (YOU DECIDE - NOT ME). Mosi-guard's web site states "There has been extensive experience with the use of Mosi-guard Natural on children from 3 months of age onwards. Very little of the active ingredient in Mosi-guard Natural is absorbed through the skin." If you know, please let me know what percentage of Mosi-guard is Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus - Thank you. The Mosi-guard web site states this, and I quote: "However, a recent study conducted at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine compared three of the most popular insect repellent brands in the UK. It was shown that Mosi-guard Natural is as effective as the strongest available deet repellent over an eleven-hour period." - Mosi-guard - Frequently Asked Questions Check out the effectiveness and any known potential problems with Mosi-guard by examining the data on Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus (OLE, also called PMD). Mosi Guard Natural Insect Repellent. Contains Effective Citriodiol Amazon.com REVIEWS of Mosi-guard CITRIODIOL - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Efficacy studies - Citriodiol - p-menthane-3,8-diol Citriodiol dot com - FAQ Citriodiol - Natures most effective Insect Repellent - Citriodora Oil

MOSQUITO MILK

Mosquito milk is a combination of Geranium and 20% DEET. The manufacturer claims: Mosquito Milk is effective against all biting insects including mosquitoes, biting flies, deer flies, ticks, black flies, sand flies and even the legendary Scottish Midge. I HAVE NOT USED THIS PRODUCT. I have successfully used RID. Please note that there may be side effects to Geranium. A lot of users like it and the Geranium in it will make it more effective than DEET alone. Personally, If mosquitoes love you, I would (and do) use multiple repellent ingredients at the same time - such as RID, Picaridin and OLE and even Geranium. I believe that this is the best defense.

NETTING - MOSQUITO

Indoor/Outdoor Home Mosquito Netting, "hats" & Bed Canopies mosquito-netting.com GET CHEMICALLY TREATED MOSQUITO NETTING Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets and Malaria Prevention: Weighing the Benefits, Naming the Benefactors Mosquito Netting Tips Mosquito Netting- Safe and Effective Protection Against Mosquito Bites RBM - Insecticide-treated mosquito nets Mosquito net - Wikipedia INSECTICIDE-TREATED MOSQUITO NETS: a WHO Position Statement

OFF! Clip-On Mosquito Repellent uses Metofluthrin

The August 2010 issue of Consumer Reports states that this did did such a bad job of repelling mosquitoes, that Consumer Reports pulled it from their mosquito Repellent tests, early on in the tests. My own experience with the OFF! Clip-On Mosquito Repellent, in my NC yard, is that it seems to protect you below where you wear it (on your belt), but I was bitten by at least eight (8) mosquitoes (mostly on my arms), in the first minute, as soon as I stepped under a small, low hanging tree branch in the side of my yard. We did NOT take OFF with us, due to what Consumer Reports said about it. OFF Clip-on mosquito protection - Uses two 1.5 volt AA alkaline batteries. OFF! Clip-On Mosquito Repellent READ The Precautions (in the above link - Click "Precautions". "Be sure to wash hands after handling." Stupidly (my opinion), it is Dark Blue, an attractant for Tsetse Flies (a daytime menace) - I will repaint mine to a light tan. I will opt to use it (my opinions) - NOT in safari vehicles NOT in our rooms (any enclosed space) ONLY while outside Keep the fumes OFF of any Food. NOT store it near Heat or Flames. Nor let fumes near heat or flames. IT BLOWS DOWNWARD - so don't use it if your legs or feet are bare (opinion). SAFARI THOUGHTS (Mine - opinions) Will Lions by attracted/offended by any smell? Will the noise (if there is any) of the battery operated fan, scare or even attract unwanted lion attention? For additional information in case of emergency, call toll free 800-558-5252 Metofluthrin - fact sheet and risk assessment - EPA Metofluthrin - Registration of OFF! Insect Repellent Fan The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) classified metofluthrin as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans." The Agency assumed that the OFF! Repellent Fan would be used 12 hours per day, 12 times per year. Percent landing reductions over control subjects ranged from 84% to 100%, with most points of evaluation demonstrating 100% reduction. In the Florida study, percent landing reduction ranged from 59% to 100% when evaluated in the first, sixth and twelfth hours of operation. Overall, the risks posed by the OFF! Repellent Fan and OFF! Repellent Fan Refills products appear to be low - BUT WHAT ABOUT DAILY USE ON A SAFARI? 19 symptoms of Metofluthrin Poisoning Chemical poisoning - Metofluthrin Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments OFF! Clip-On Mosquito Repellent Public Report 2007-6, Metofluthrin - PDF U.S. laboratory and field trials of metofluthrin - NIH.gov These results demonstrate that metofluthrin-treated emanators are highly effective at repelling mosquitoes. FIELD EVALUATION OF SPATIAL REPELLENCY OF METOFLUTHRIN IMPREGNATED ... - PDF Metofluthrin - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory Metofluthrin in New Mosquito repeller toxic to dogs - DoggySnaps The effects of sustained release metofluthrin on the biting ... In the room treated with metofluthrin the majority of mosquitoes died and a spillover effect into the neighboring room caused greater than one-third mortality of the mosquitoes. Metofluthrin could be used to prevent dengue transmission within a household - NOT SURE THAT IS SAFE. Field Evaluation of Repellency of Metofluthrin-Impregnated Plastic Strips Against Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes in Tanzania Very effective. Lethal and repellent effects of transfluthrin and metofluthrin What is the active ingredient metofluthrin? Buy Products Sell Chemicals Metofluthrin insecticides Metofluthrin

OIL of LEMON EUCALYPTUS - OLE - a Repellent (also: "PMD")

PMD (Chemical Name: para-Menthane-3,8-diol) the synthesized version of oil of lemon eucalyptus

OLE's Active ingredient: p-menthane 3,8-diol (PMD) Until recently, OIL of LEMON EUCALYPTUS (Corymbia citriodora) has NOT been scientifically tested OUTSIDE of the USA - this is no longer true. I BELIEVE THAT OLE HAS NOW BEEN SUFFICIENTLY STUDIED (my OPINION). Mosi-guard is an OLE product and recommend by many in TripAdvisor lemon eucalyptus label specifies that they should not to be used on children under the age of three years, BUT I see that Mosi-guard states that it is OK for childred onver THREE MONTHS OLD - (YOU DECIDE - NOT ME) - SCROLL TO: "EPA recommends the following precautions when using insect repellents:" Natrapel uses OLE (OIL of LEMON EUCALYPTUS) some products, BUT Picaridin in other products (we used the Picaridin product). MY GROUP USED BOTH RID and NATRAPEL FOR 30 DAYS IN SIX AFRICAN COUNTRIES (Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Victoria Falls) - THE COMBINATION (all I can attest to) WORKED EXTREMELY WELL. NOTE that we seldom actually saw mosquitoes, going to Africa in early September. We did see that all the MANY mosquitoes in Botswana avoided us completely - While riding an elephant on a bush safari, We would notice the mosquitoes drift back to us, from the elephant guide (riding on the front of the elephant) and then the mosquitoes IMMEDIATELY reversed course away from us when they drifted close to me. How to Use Lemon Eucalyptus Oil as an Insect Repellent - eHow.com LEMON EUCALYPTUS: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings ... p-Menthane-3,8-diol (011550) Fact Sheet Lemon Eucalyptus - Wikipedia Mosi Guard Natural Insect Repellent. Contains Effective Citriodiol Amazon.com REVIEWS of Mosi-guard CITRIODIOL - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Efficacy studies - Citriodiol - p-menthane-3,8-diol Citriodiol dot com - FAQ Citriodiol - Natures most effective Insect Repellent - Citriodora Oil Repel Lemon Eucalyptus (40%) Pump Insect Repellent - 4 Oz - $7.75 - REI - ****1/2 Check the reviews on this site (all positive, used in Honduras,Alaska, Malasia, Phillipines,Singapore, Jungles of India and Central America,...) Mosi-guard (mosquito repellent) - contains OLE The active ingredient in Mosi-guard Natural is Citriodiol, a naturally occurring extract of lemon eucalyptus oil. Mosi-guard comes in five presentations, including a Pump Spray, Roll on, Cream, Stick and Aerosol Spray, each offering the same level of protection.

PERIPREL - Repellent

Periprel is apparently 0.19%permethrin based. Mosquito repellent Ė called Periprel "There are other products on the market like Nomad Bugproof and Sawyer Permethrine that have 0.5% concentration which it might be too much" - 4x4community.co.za Mosquito repellent - called Periprel - SA 4x4 Community Forum ... PERIPEL 55 Health and Safety Executive - Biocides and pesticides - Pesticides ...

PERMETHRIN Insecticide - keep off your skin

Permethrin is an insecticide often used to treat safari clothes, in-order-to kill mosquitoes. Do not use to treat underwear, hats, caps or inner clothing (it could cause Permethrin Poisoning). We made our own Permethrin insect killing clothes for our safaris. We got the Permethrin at a local sporting goods store (REI), and just followed the instructions on the bottle. Permethrin is a much better tick repellent than is DEET. Permethrin and Pyrethrum Insecticides - What's The Difference? I got this information, below, from somewhere, last week, and I'm trying to find the correct link, sot that I can give credit to the correct people (the "I" is NOT the author of THIS web site): I have used permethrin on clothing once when we went to the Amazon and seemed to work. Normally I'm a magnet for mosquitoes and never got bitten (put on DEET too). Had also the problem of not finding a solution ready for spraying on the clothes and ended up going to the pharmacist, got some permethine solution and diluted it in water in a 0.25% concentration. Periprel seems to be 0.19% and there are other products on the market like Nomad Bugproof and Sawyer Permethrine that have 0.5% concentration which it might be too much, that's used for the military. No-one seems to really know the exact safety threshold but from what I've seen around 0.20-0.25% seems to be the consensus for normal civilian use considering that this stuff actually is an insecticide, toxic in high concentrations and absorbed by the skin. Pyrethrin and Permethrin Toxicity in Dogs and Cats Using Permethrin To Prevent Tick Bites Insecticide-treated clothing fights malaria Pretreated Insect Repellent Clothing: Insect Repellents | eHow.com Malaria Journal | Full text | Use of insecticide-treated clothes Health Advisory: Tick and Insect Repellents Repel 32600 6 oz Permanone Clothing & Gear Insect Repellent Just be aware that the going rate for a can of this stuff is $6-8, not $15 as at Amazon. Sawyer Permethrin Pump Spray - 24 oz.

PICARIDIN (KBR3023, Bayrepel, Icaridin or Saltidin) - REPELLENT

Icaridin, also known as picaridin, KBR 3023, under the INCI name hydroxyethyl isobutyl piperidine carboxylate, and the trade names Bayrepel and Saltidin, is an insect repellent. - Icaridin PICARIDIN & DEET are the most effective mosquito repellents for use outside of the USA (Oil of Eucalyptus has not been tested much outside the USA until recently). "Unlike DEET, Picaridin is odorless, does not feel greasy or sticky, is less likely to irritate the skin, and does not damage plastics or fabrics". - medicalletter.org Picaridin is a petroleum based (Oily) chemical, which if left on for long periods, may contribute to acne. DEET and PICARIDIN, themselves, are NOT comedogenic, BUT most products containing either DEET or PICARIDIN ARE comedogenic (at least the ones I keep finding). YOU WANT THE 20% PICARIDIN (the highest legal concentration here in the USA). Consumer Reports retests in 2006 gave as result that a 7% solution of picaridin offered little or no protection - Icaridin - Wikipedia But you really want a 20% solution of Picaridin, never the 7%. A lot of people like AUTAN, made with Icardin Poisoning by PICARIDIN (NOT very likely) Picaridin vs. DEET: Face-off "Round-up of several studies in Australia: Concludes that picaridin in concentration of 19.2 percent was as effective as the same concentration of DEET. Consumer Reports: Found that 7 percent picaridin is as effective as 10 percent DEET." scroll down to INSECT BITE PREVENTION Picaridin - US EPA, Picaridin Factsheet - PDF Picaridin Technical Fact Sheet Includes brief contrast of Safety and Acceptability of Picaridin to DEET Cutter 15% Picaridin Advanced Sport Aerosol 6 oz - #.97 - ***** Cutter 53663 Advanced 6-Ounce 5.75% Picaridin Insect Repellent Pump Spray - $9.63 - 7% Picaridin - 11.2 Oz - **** Premium Insect Repellent 20% PICARIDIN - 3 Oz spray - $ 7.81 - **** Natrapel Picaridin (20%) Insect Repellent - 3.5 fl. oz - $6.95 - REI Skin So Soft Bug Guard Plus Picaridin Pump Spray - 4 fl. oz - $14 - Picaridin 10.0%

POISONING by Insecticides

The National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. Bug spray poisoning: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Discovery Health "Bug Sprays - Medical Dictionary"

Poisoning by ALLETHRIN

Mosquito Coil (Allethrin) Poisoining in Two Brothers - PDF Chemical poisoning -- Allethrin Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments ... D-trans Allethrin - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory .. WHO SPECIFICATIONS AND EVALUATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PESTICIDES d ... - PDF Allethrin is slightly toxic by dermal absorption and ingestion

Poisoning by CONCEAL (LINALOOL)

LINALOOL Fragrance Ingredient; DEODORANT; MASKING - cosmeticsdatabase

Poisoning by DEET

DEET Repellent Fact Sheet CAROLINE COX / Journal of Pesticide DEET - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory information INGESTION of DEET - Poisoning Symptoms: Moderate-to-severe stomach irritation Nausea Vomiting NEUROLOGICAL DAMAGE is the most serious DEET complication: Possible disorientation, clumsiness when walking, seizures, or coma. Death is possible in these cases Deet (OFF!) - Summary of Adverse Health Effecrs in Children and Adults

Poisoning by GERANIOL

I have seen nothing about actual poisoning cases caused by GERANIOL. Some "authorities" suspect that Geraniol may have adverse side effects. Some "Authorities" are concerned that Geraniol may cause Allergies Non-Food Allergy - Geraniol Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and ..

Poisoning by METOFLUTHRIN

19 symptoms of Metofluthrin Poisoning Chemical poisoning - Metofluthrin Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments Metofluthrin, like other pyrethroids, is neurotoxic in rats, rabbits, and dogs - EPA.

Poisoning by PERMETHRIN (a pyrethroid pesticide)

Permethrin - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory information - pesticideinfo.org Chemical poisoning - Permethrin Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments ... - wrongdiagnosis Humans rapidly detoxify and excrete permethrin Permethrin Poisoning in Cats - video - Youtube What to Do With Dog Poisoning From Permethrin? - eHow.com Poisons - permethrin poisoning

Poisoning by PICARIDIN

Picaridin is NOT known to be toxic if properly used. Picaridin is classified as slightly toxi if ingested. Picaridin - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory information Picaridin is classified as slightly toxi if ingested "The U.S. EPA placed picaridin in Category III, slightly toxic, for acute dermal and ocular exposure."

Poisoning by PYRETHRIN

Poisoning - For pyrethrins (scroll down) Breathing difficulty Coughing Loss of alertness due to imbalance in oxygen level Tremors (if a large amount is swallowed) Seizures (if a large amount is swallowed) Upset stomach Vomiting Pyrethrin and Permethrin Toxicity in Dogs and Cats

PYRETHRIN - INSECTICIDE

Pyrethrins are considered one of the least toxic insecticides to mammals. They are biodegradable and break down with exposure to light. Inhaling high levels of pyrethrum may bring about asthmatic breathing, sneezing, nasal stuffiness, headache, nausea, incoordination, tremors, convulsions, facial flushing and swelling, and burning and itching sensations. - Pyrethrins - Cornell Pyrethrin - Wikipedia The natural pyrethrins are contact poisons - Cornell EXTOXNET PIP - PYRETHRINS AND PYRETHROIDS Pyrethrin and Permethrin Toxicity in Dogs and Cats

PYRETHRUM INSECTICIDE

Permethrin and Pyrethrum Insecticides - What's The Difference? Pyrethrum / Pyrethrins Pyrethrum - Wikipedia Pyrethrum A Natural Insecticide Pyrethrin insecticide information - Pyrethrum - Pyrethrins Pyrethrum Spray Concentrate- is the formula used in Mosquito ... Pyrethrum Insecticide

RID - An Australian insect Repellent - said to also work on Tsetse Flies

I asked Steve, steve@thesafaristore.co.uk, what he recommended for a month of safaris in various African countries, and he had this to say: "I recommend that you take the RID Tropical Insect Repellent Spray, which is the best repellent available today for all flying insects, and the only one proven to work against tsetse flies. I usually recommend that clients take one bottle each per 7 days on safari - the amount you will use will depend on the number of insects you encounter while on safari and does vary. I personally would rather return with repellent left over than run out while on safari." - Steve @ The Safari Store Spray RID on your hands, then srpead it on your face." - Steve @ The Safari Store This is what I did. RID TROPICAL STRENGTH INSECT REPELLENT CONTAINS: 19.5% DEET plus two additional repellents, including a FLY repellent, Antiseptic to kill a wide range of bacteria, Vitamin E for moisturizing, Chamomile for its soothing relief, and Triclosan (an anti-bacterial/ inflammatory agent). They say: "RID will protect you from all biting bugs (mosquitoes, sand flies midges, ticks, fleas and TSETSE flies), mosquito borne diseases, and those pesky flies, ants and leeches, just as it has been doing for the last 50 years", NOTHING bit my party of 5 in our 30 days in Africa - Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. - we used some RID and some Picaridin. I will admit that other than Botswana, there were not a lot biting things around in September 2010. They were everywhere in Botswana. For that matter, 4 our of 5 rehabilitated vultures REFUSED to eat raw meat out of my hand, and backed away from me. To order RID Tropical Insect Repellent Spray from The Safari Store (UK) RID Medicated Insect Repellent - Company History RID Medicated Insect Repellent - rid.com.au RID Insect Repellent - Wikipedia RID on Facebook claims to be effective against the Tsetse Fly RID - Information about

Shoo Fly Soap All-Natural No-See-Ums Repellent Soap and Spray

I can find NO real reviews on the effectiveness of these products. Shoo Fly Natural Insect Repellent Soap Ingredients: Extra VirginOlive Oil (EVOO), Distilled Water, Coconut Oil, Palm Oil, Sodium Hydroxide, and a proprietary mix of essential oils to repel black flies, deer flies, mosquitoes and other insect pests. Shoo Fly - Home web page Shoo Fly Handmade Soap

SKINASTIC

The Skinastic that checked out, contained 15% DEET as the only active ingredient. Active Ingredient: Deet (15%) - Click on SHOW MORE PRODUCT INFO

TICKS - Complete Information about Ticks

I suggest that you wear a hat, if out where trees are above your head. DEET is an excellent mosquito repellent, but it is a fairly poor tick repellent. Tick identification pictures and descriptions - tickinfo Tick - Wikipedia Tick identification pictures and descriptions - state.il.us Ticks - eMedicineHealth Tick Biology - ucdavis Ticks - iastate.edu CDC Features - Stop Ticks

TICK BITES

Tick Bites - PICTURES OF - crashes my Firefox 3.6.16 a Picture of a Tick bite with Lyme Disease - looks like a red Bull's Eye - lindsayjm Tick Bites: MedlinePlus - nih.gov Tick Bites-Home Treatment Tick Prevention, Bite Symptoms, Treatment of Bites and Species of ... - emedicinehealth What to do after a tick bite to prevent Lyme disease - uptodate Lyme disease - bclocalnews Ticks, Tick Bites, and Diseases Caused by Ticks

TICK DISEASES

CDC Features - Stop Ticks "Some of the more common diseases that you can get from a tick bite include (listed alphabetically): Illustration: Tick types and sizes (USA). Click to enlarge. * Babesiosis * Ehrlichiosis * Lyme disease * Rocky Mountain spotted fever * Southern tick-associated rash illness * Tick-borne relapsing fever * Tularemia Other diseases that you can get from a tick in the United States include anaplasmosis, Colorado tick fever, and Powassan encephalitis." - CDC

TICK REPELLENTS

Ticks can transmit various diseases, most notably Lyme Disease in the USA. To lessen your chance of tick bites. "Wear light-colored clothing. Tuck your pants into your socks. Tuck your shirt into your pants. Wear a hat. Spray your shoes, socks, belt-line, collar and hat with a permethrin containing tick repellent. Do a tick check after walking in high-risk areas. Put any clothes that might have live ticks on them into a hot dryer for ten minutes to kill all insects." - DEET vs. Permethrin as a Tick Repellent - Tom Grier The US Government suggests either DEET or Permethrin to repel ticks. DEET is an excellent mosquito repellent, but it is a fairly poor tick repellent. Permethrin is a much better tick repellent than is DEET. DEET vs. Permethrin as a Tick Repellent Insect Repellent Reviews - What's the story with DEET? A tick repellent - Public Health Sheet - PDF RID is supposed to repeal ticks.

TIPS on using Insect Repellents - CLICK HERE

TSETSE FLIES

Tsetse flies are attracted to black and dark blue, so do not wear these colors. Tsetse flies are really attracted to "electric blue". DEET will NOT repell Tsetse flies. Untamed Kafue Says: "These TSETSE flies only live in Africa and are a notorious companion to a visitor of Kafue National Park (the largest park in Zambia). They breed along rivers and streams. They are active during the day and feed exclusively on blood. Unlike most biting flies, where only the female feeds on blood, both male and female tsetse flies are blood suckers. Tsetse flies are common in heavily wooded areas in the park, so to avoid a quite painful sting, keep vehicle windows closed when going through the woodlands. A tin of insect repellent and fly swatter will come in handy. Some lodges in the park will give a sign for you to stop a good 100m or so before your camp site and make sure you have killed all the flies. Local initiatives to control Tsetse flies include burning elephant dung in a tin at the back of open safari vehicles, but it's not as easy with a closed vehicle. A 30% Dettol, 70% water mix in an atomizer also seems to help. It's essential to wear khaki - no dark clothes, not even socks. Periprel can also help. Once you've been bitten a couple of times, you realize they're not that bad - keep a suction pump and some Stingose handy." RID claims to be effective against Tsetse flies. Africa - Tsetse Flies - UEN "There are 22 different species of tsetse fly, and they live only in Africa. These flies are slightly larger than a horsefly." CNN - Battling the deadly bite of the tsetse fly Tsetse fly - Wikipedia

TIGER BALM, RED TIGER BALM & WHITE TIGER BALM

Tiger Balm - Wikipedia Wikipedia says that the compostion of Tiger Balm is: " COMPOSITION Ingredient[3] Red White (Tiger Balm) Menthol 10% 8% Camphor 11% 11% Dementholised mint oil 6% 16% Cajuput oil 7% 13% Clove bud oil 5% 1.5% Cassia oil 5% The remainder is a petroleum jelly and paraffin base. The packaging label states that the active ingredients are menthol and camphor. The original Tiger Balm Red and Tiger Balm White have 25% of Camphor.[4] A new product named Tiger Balm White HR uses Eucalyptus oil instead of Cajuput oil.[4]" - WIKIPEDIA

TIPS on using Insect Repellents - CLICK HERE

TSETSE FLIES

Tsetse flies are attracted to black and dark blue, so do not wear these colors. Tsetse flies are really attracted to "electric blue". DEET will NOT repell Tsetse flies.

WARNINGS / POISONING from Repellents and Insecticides

POISONING by Insecticides ALLETHRIN Poisoning CONCEAL (LINALOOL) Poisoning DEET CORROSIVENESS - Warning - disolves, plastics, materials DEET Poisoning GERANIOL Poisoning - NONE known LEMON EUCALYPTUS (OLE) Poisoning METOFLUTHRIN Poisoning NATRAPEL - ACNE WARNING PICARIDIN Poisoning - NOT known to be toxic if properly used PYRETHRIN Poisoning

WEST NILE VIRUS

The CDC says: West Nile virus (carried by mosquitoes): Use repellents containing DEET, picaridin, IR 3535 or oil of lemon eucalyptus and wear clothing treated with permethrin. West Nile Virus - GoogleHealth West Nile Virus - CDC West Nile Virus - What You Need To Know - CDC West Nile Virus - wikipedia West Nile Virus: MedlinePlus West Nile virus - MayoClinic.com West Nile Virus - National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) West Nile Virus

WRIST BAND REPELLENTS

It is possible that there is a new type of wristband that works. But the wristbands fared poorly. The three tested bands offered virtually no protection whatsoever - WebMD

ZAPPERS - MOSQUITO (electrified) SWATTERS

They convert battery power to a higher eletric voltage and fry the criiters. Well - they DO WORK - at least the older model that we found - it takes Two 'D' Cells, unlike most of the news ones, that seem to take two 'AA' cells. BugKwikZap Bug Zapper Kill area = 52cm = 20 1/2 inches x cm 21 = 8.3 Inches. BugKwikZap Bug Zapper Electric Fly Swatter

NEWS about MOSQUITOES, INSECTICIDES, MALARIA & Insect Borne DISEASES

New Insect Repellent is 'Thousands of Times' More Effective Than DEET The WMD of insect repellant: Bug spray developed that is 'Thousands of Times' More Effective Than DEET Single Effective Insect Repellent for All Types of Insects soon possible Mystery drop in mosquito numbers - malaria-carrying mosquitoes are disappearing in some parts of Africa Bacteria stops dengue in tracks East African spider prefers to eat mosquitoes that can carry Malaria Scientists make transgenic fungus to fight malaria - 2/11/2011 Mosquito's Sugar Appetite Could Turn Against It Malaria Spreading HIV How to Cut the Mosquito's Sensitivity to Carbon Dioxide? Vest Nile Transmitting Mosquitoes Choose Robins The Threat of the Future: Animal Born Diseases

RESOURCES - These may not be mentioned elsewhere

Aedes mosquitoes (vector of dengue fever)

Anopheles Mosquitoes

These are the mosquitoes than can spread Malaria. Mosquitoes that carry Malaria are usually out from before dusk until after dawn: Anopheles - Wikipedia CDC - Malaria - About Malaria - Biology - Mosquitoes - Anopheles ... - CDC.gov Malaria Site: Anopheles Mosquito Interesting Facts about the Anopheles Mosquito - MosquitoMagnet.com Avian Malaria Culex Mosquitoes "Culex is a genus of mosquito, and is important in that several species serve as vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and avian malaria."

DENGUE FEVER

Mosquitoes that carry Dengue Fever bite in the DAYTIME. Dengue fever - nih.gov Dengue fever is caused by one of four different but related viruses. It is spread by the bite of mosquitoes, most commonly the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever should not be confused with Dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is a separate disease that is caused by the same type of virus but has much more severe symptoms. (prognosis) - The condition generally lasts a week or more. Although uncomfortable, dengue fever is not deadly. People with the condition should fully recover. Tiger mosquitoes are known to be in Florida, Texas, Hawaii, Carolinas and now California (USA) Dengue Fever New clue to fighting dengue fever - BBC CDC - Dengue Aedes aegypti which spreads dengue and yellow fever The effects of sustained release metofluthrin on the biting ... In the room treated with metofluthrin the majority of mosquitoes died and a spillover effect into the neighboring room caused greater than one-third mortality of the mosquitoes. Metofluthrin could be used to prevent dengue transmission within a household - NOT SURE THAT IS SAFE. Bacteria stops dengue in tracks "We have recently returned from a 5 star resort in the Maldives. The resort which I won't name was exceptional and almost exactly what we expected. Unfortunately both myself and my husband got the Dengue virus. I got this on the 5th day in and my husband became ill on the flight home. I was admitted to hospital within hours of landing back in the U.K. I can honestly say that I thought I was dying. My liver was inflamed, white cell count was obliterated, potassium low, platelets depleted, extremely low blood pressure etc. I spent a week in hospital but a week later and I have zero mojo and walking like a zombie. This Dengue virus is nasty and it blighted what was supposed to be a wonderful holiday. The resort did the fogging thing every night but clearly this made no difference to us. The sense I got from the resort is that they wanted to 'dumb' down any mention of the risk of contracting Dengue. I think this is unhelpful because we may have been saved from getting this if the risks had been highlighted and guidelines on precautions. Feeling slightly bitter, exhausted and defeated by this experience. No matter how beautiful the island was it wasn't worth it." - by dadpad1325 - TripAdvisor Eastern Equine Encephalitis (sleeping sickness) Filariasis Japanese Encephalitis St. Louis Encephalitis

INDEX and OTHER RELATED INFORMATION

AFRICAN TRIP HEALTH ISSUES AFRICAN COUNTRIES TO WHICH WE ARE GOING: AFRICA BOTSWANA KENYA NAMIBIA (web page pending) SOUTH AFRICA ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE Complete AFRICAN SAFARI PLANNING | Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - BOTSWANA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - KENYA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - NAMIBIA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - SOUTH AFRICA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - ZAMBIA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - ZIMBABWE Electric Outlet Adapters Electrical Connections / Plug Types / Voltage BITES: BITES - Treating & Identifying BITES - MOSQUITO - Treating Bites - TICK - Pictures & Treatment Lyme Disease - Tick Bite with it - picture LYME DISEASE IN SOUTH AFRICA BUY - WHERE to get these insect repellents and killers CLOTHES - TREATED: CLOTHES - treated with Permethrin - kill/repel insects CLOTHING - Sunscreen effectiveness of Clothing | CLOTHES - INCREASING the SPF| CLOTHES - WITH a High SPF| CLOTHES you can TAN THROUGH | CPAP and Battery powered CPAP/APAP DISEASES - Mosquito Borne: Avian Malaria Dengue Fever - mosquitoes bite in the DAYTIME Eastern Equine Encephalitis (sleeping sickness) Filariasis Japanese Encephalitis St. Louis Encephalitis Zika Virus Aedes aegypti Mosquito which spreads dengue and yellow fever Anopheles gambiae Mosquito, which spreads malaria Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito, which spreads filariasis and West Nile virus DISEASES - TICK Borne: Lyme Disease Lyme Disease - Tick Bite with it - picture LYME DISEASE IN SOUTH AFRICA GPS - Complete Information about GPS HATS, SAFARI MALARIA TREATMENTS / PREVENTATIVES: Complete MALARIA Information Doxycycline MALARIA - Prevention, Prophylactics & Information MALARONE - Malaria Prophylactic - RECOMMENDED Mefloquine Prophylactics / Malaria Preventative Medications MOSQUITOES: Aedes mosquitoes (vector of dengue fever) bite in the DAYTIME Anopheles Mosquitoes Culex Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti Mosquito which spreads dengue and yellow fever Anopheles gambiae Mosquito, which spreads malaria Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito, which spreads filariasis and West Nile virus DENGUE FEVER Mozzies NEWS: NEWS - Mosquitoes, Malaria, Insecticides & insect borne Diseases POISONING by REPELLENTS AND INSECTICIDES: Poisoning by ALLETHRIN Poisoning by DEET Poisoning by GERANIOL? Poisoning by Insecticides Poisoning by METOFLUTHRIN Poisoning by PERMETHRIN (a pyrethroid pesticide)) Poisoning by PICARIDIN (not very likely) Poisoning by PYRETHRIN REAPPLICATION of Insect Repellent - TIPS REPELLENTS AND INSECTICIDES: WHAT Insect Repellents we used successfully in Africa RECOMMENDED INSECT REPELLENTS DEET on cloth for additional protection WHERE to buy these insect repellents and killers Allethrin - Repellent All Terrain's HERBAL ARMOR Autan - Icaridin (Picaridin) AVON AVON SKIN SO SOFT Bug Guard Plus IR3535 Bayrepel (Picaridin) Catnip - Repellent - CAUTION Citrepel (PMD) - Repellent Citriodiol (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus) Citronella - Repellent Conceal - Repellent Corymbia citriodora (OLE) DEET - Repellent DEET Corrosiveness WARNING DEET and FISHING DEET POISONING DEET - Sellers of DEET and TICKS DOOM Insecticide (found in Africa, only [Kenya]) Dr D - from Nakumatt - Citrepel Repellent (PMD) Dr Johnson Mosquito & Insect Repellent - citronella oil, eucalyptus oil, lemongrass oil & lavender oil Geraniol - Repellent Geraniol POISONING Geranium (really Geraniol) - Repellent HERBAL ARMOR hydroxyethyl isobutyl piperidine carboxylate (Picaridin) Icaridin (Picaridin) IR3535 - Repellent JUNGLE FORMULA Repellent (25% DEET) KBR 3023 LEMON EUCALYPTUS LEMON EUCALYPTUS Poisoning Linalool - supposedly blocks mosquitoes from detecting you Metofluthrin Consumer Reports states that OFF (contains Metofluthrin) does not work very well. Click on the above link. Metofluthrin POISONING Mosi-guard brand of OLE (Citriodiol) MOSQUITO MILK - Geranium (really probably Geraniol) & 20% DEET NATRAPEL (Picaridin) NATRAPEL (Picaridin) - ACNE WARNING Nepetalactone (Catnip) NETTING - Mosquito No-See-Ums Repellent Off Deep Woods OIL of LEMON EUCALYPTUS - OLE - a Repellent (also: "PMD") Periprel - Repellent Permethrin Insecticide - keep off your skin Permethrin - treat your clothes with it to kill/repel insects Picaridin (KBR3023, or Bayrepel) - REPELLENT Picaridin - POISONING PMD (OLE) Pyrethrin - Insecticide Pyrethrin - POISONING Pyrethrum - Insecticide RED Tiger Balm RID - Mosquito & FLY repellent Saltidin (Picaridin) Shoo Fly natural Fly repellent Skin So Soft Skin So Soft Bug Guard Plus IR3535 Skinastic - 15% deet TICK Repellent Tiger Balm Ultrathon - 3M slow release DEET WHITE Tiger Balm SPF: SPF | SPF - CLOTHES - INCREASING| SPF - CLOTHES - WITH SPF| SPRAY TAN / SELF TANNING / FAKE TANS | SUNBURN / HEAT EXHAUSTION / HEAT STROKE: SUNBURN Treatment | HEAT EXHAUSTION | HEAT STROKE | SUNGLASSES INFORMATION: SUNGLASSES - WHAT they SHOULD Do for you BLUE LIGHT (rays) may CAUSE Macular Degeneration SUNSCREEN INFORMATION: SUNSCREEN - Complete Sunscreen Warnings, Information, Ingredients, Products & Resources SUNSCREEN - RECOMMENDATIONS SWATTERS / ZAPPERS - Insect TANNING: Tanning PILLS | Tan Through CLOTHES | TICK INFORMATION: TICKS - Complete TICK Information Lyme Disease Lyme Disease - Tick Bite with it LYME DISEASE IN SOUTH AFRICA Tick BITES Tick DISEASES TICK Repellent TIPS for effectively applying even more insect repellent TIPS for USING Insect Repellent TIPS for using Insect Repellent at the BEACH / SUN TANNING TIPS for when to REAPPLY Insect Repellent TIPS for using Insect Repellent ON SAFARI Tsetse Flies TRAVEL INFORMATION TRAVEL INSURANCE Travel SUPPLIES Travel WARNINGS (US State Department) HEV = 400-500 nm (longer than UVA) - may cause Macular Degeneration UV400 (blocks UVA, UVB and UVC = 100 nm to 400 nm, but NOT HEC) UVA UVB UVC West Nile Virus WHAT WE USED IN AFRICA and no one got any bites WHERE to buy these insect repellents and killers Wristband Insect Repellents I researched most of this information prior to our 30 day African photo safari. Use this information at your own risk - it may be outdated or wrong. I created these websites ONLY to provide free information to help other people. I am NOT a business of any kind, and make NO money from these web pages. I try to provide only accurate information - please report any inaccuracies. I am not responsible for what other web sites have to say or print. Feel free to link to any of my pages. Privacy Policy - we keep NO information about visitors Terms of Use We NEVER get paid anything for endorsements of any kind David Woodsmall - Main Web page