Complete Malaria Information for Kenya and South Africa

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COPYRIGHT 2009 thru 2017 - David R. Woodsmall

I am NOT a Doctor - Consult a Travel Doctor

Use this information at your own risk - it may be outdated or wrong

I Have NO medical training - YOU Do or do Not do things at YOUR OWN risk

TWEET This web page is generally arranged in Alphabetic Order, by Subject, with an INDEX at the end of each web page. Find your desired subject and double click on it. RID is the world's best insect repellent, in my personal opinion In my 30 days of Photo Safaries in Six African Countries, and in my wooded back yard, I, personally, found RID to be the best insect repellent for myself and my fellow travelers. NONE of my party of 5 got bitten by anything.. RID TROPICAL STRENGTH INSECT REPELLENT CONTAINS: 19.5% DEET plus two additional repellents, including a FLY repellent, Antiseptic to kill a wide range of bacteria, Vitamin E for moisturizing, Chamomile for its soothing relief, and Triclosan an anti-bacterial/inflammatory agent). I have NO connection to RID nor sellers of RID. REALLY Complete Insect Repellent & Insecticide Information - CLICK HERE WE USED AND HIGHLY RECOMMEND THE PROPHYLACTIC MALARONE, as a medication to prevent getting malaria (nothing works 100% of the time). Of course, you may have a different experience. NONE of my party of Five noticed any side effects with Malarone. We took it with and without food - no problems. Malarone is effective against all African malaria, AS FAR IS WE KNOW, AND AT THIS POINT IN TIME (March 2011). We also took the antibiotic (Doxycycline) as a backup, (we carried it with us, but were not going to take it unless it was needed) in case we did have problems with Malarone. We believe that you have to be more careful about too much sunshine, if you take Doxycycline (check the facts). CHECK WITH YOUR TRAVEL DOCTOR BEFORE MAKING A CHOICE Malaria deaths hugely underestimated - Lancet Some travelers prefer to take the cheaper Doxycycline instead of Malarone. The advantages of Doxycycline are: 1} Doxycycline is cheaper than Malarone. 2] Since it is an anti-biotic, it will kill some bad things that may get into your system. The DISadvantages of Doxycycline are: 1] Doxycycline is an antibiotic - it will kill good intestinal bacteria, perhaps causing diarrhea. (You can eat any of the Probiotics to replenish the good bacteria. I take cheap, over the counter, brands that I find in the vitamin aisle). 2[ It may cause women to contract a yeast infection - I don't think over the counter probiotics will help that, although changing the pH of your system helps, and cranberry capsules help, but you would, perhaps, get a medical prescription (filled) to combat a possible yeast infection before you travel. 3] Since it is an antibiotic, you may be strengthening bacterial resistance to Doxycycline, rendering Doxycycline useless for you when you need it, causing you to have to take a stronger antibiotic to fight an infection. WARNING - I WOULD NOT, PERSONALLY, EVER WEAR OR EVEN BUY CHEMICALLY TREATED CLOTHING THAT DOES NOT FULLY DISCLOSE WHAT INSECT REPELLENT AND/OR INSECTICIDE IS USED ON THE CLOTHES, AND ANY KNOWN TOXICITY AND POISONING SYMPTOMS - THIS IS MY PERSONAL OPINION We treated the outside of our outer clothing with PERMETHRIN Insecticide - keep off of your skin - to kill insects on contact. "Malaria is an ancient disease probably originating in Africa. The malaria parasite (plasmodium) is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. ..." - mosquito.org There are now over 60 breeds of mosquito that can carry malaria. Mosquitoes that carry Malaria are usually out from before dusk until after dawn: But then mosquitoes that carry Dengue Fever are out in the DAYTIME. See also Complete information about MOSQUITOES, Insecticides, Repellents, Zappers,... ONE OF MY REGULAR DOCTORs DIS-AGREED WITH THESE PREVENTATIVE MEDICINES - CHECK WITH A TRAVEL DOCTOR ABOUT YOUR SPECIFIC TRAVEL VACCINATION NEEDS. COLORS to WEAR and to AVOID and Other Precautions AFRICA - Traveler's Health Information Lake Victoria (Zimbabwe and Zambia) region is an area with the a very high incidence of Malaria compared to the rest of Africa - softpedia

SYMPTOMS of MALARIA

Symptoms include fever, shivering, joint pain, vomiting and convulsions. Less obvious symptoms include anemia and retina problems. Classical sysmptoms are sudden feeling of cold, followed by fever and sweating. MALARIA CAN KILL YOU. Every year, there are 250 million malaria cases and nearly one million deaths Malaria Symptoms - webmd Malaria Symptoms, Treatment, Cycle, Prevention - medicinenet Symptoms of Malaria - symptoms-of-malaria

GENERAL MALARIA INFORMATION and BACKGROUND

Malaria appears to be more prevalent in places with a common fungus Malaria - don't underestimate it! 10 facts on malaria - who.int "Every year, this leads to about 250 million malaria cases and nearly one million deaths". Travel Vaccinations MD Travel Health - Kenya - vaccinations, malaria, safety, and ... All travelers should bring along an antibiotic and an antidiarrheal drug to be started promptly if significant diarrhea occurs. Malaria - mdtravelhealth One option for emergency malaria self-treatment is to take a combination of artemether and lumefantrine, marketed as Coartem in the United States and as Riamet in Europe. Malaria Tablets - Which To Take for a Safari Trip? We (five of us) used Malarone for a month-long trip, and had NO side effects - September, 2010 Malaria - MedicineNet Malaria Info - FitForTravel.nhs.uk Malaria - Wikipedia New Malaria Vaccine Initiative Aims to Stunt Parasite within Mosquitoes Parasite, mosquito genomes complete malaria picture Mosquitoes Declare War on Mount Kenya

NEWS / ARTICLES about MALARIA

New malaria vaccine offers complete protection

New malaria vaccine the first to offer complete protection - GlaxoSmithKline’s Mosquirix Sanaria PfSPZ Vaccine provides complete protection against malaria Initial trials of Sanaria vaccine provide complete protection against Malaria New malaria vaccine offers complete protection: study - Global News Drug-resistant malaria strain found in Kenya - 11/7/2012 malariavaccine.org East African spider prefers to eat mosquitoes that can carry Malaria Scientists make transgenic fungus to fight malaria - 2/11/2011 Mosquito's Sugar Appetite Could Turn Against It Malaria Spreading HIV How to Cut the Mosquito's Sensitivity to Carbon Dioxide? A potent malaria transmission blocking vaccine based on codon harmonized full length Pfs48/45... West Nile Transmitting Mosquitoes Choose Robins The Threat of the Future: Animal Born Diseases

MALARIA in KENYA

Health Information for Kenya - CDC Travelers' Health Kenya Malaria - uyaphi Kenya Malaria Map - Fit For Travel MD Travel Health - Kenya - vaccinations, malaria, safety, and ... Climate Change Fueling Malaria in Kenya, Experts Say - National Geographic KENYA - Chloroquine resistance very widespread.

MALARIA in SOUTH AFRICA

Malaria occurs in limited areas in South Africa, mainly in the low altitude (below 1000m) areas of Limpopo, Mpumalanga and North Eastern KwaZuluNatal. Kruger National park is in the malaria zone. Malaria is distinctly seasonal in South Africa, with the highest risk being during the wet summer months (October to May). Wear long sleeved clothing (preferably light colored), long trousers & socks. Malaria in Southern Africa Southern & South Africa Malaria Risk Areas Malaria in South Africa Health Information for South Africa - CDC Travelers' Health MD Travel Health - South Africa - vaccinations, malaria, safety ...

PROPHYLACTICS / PREVENTATIVE MEDICATIONS - MALARIA

WE USED AND HIGHLY RECOMMEND THE PROPHYLACTIC MALARONE, as a medication to prevent getting malaria. NONE of my party of Five noticed any side effects. I took it with and without food - no problems. Malarone is effective against all African malaria, AS FAR IS I KNOW, AND AT THIS POINT IN TIME. WE HIGHLY RECOMMEND MALARONE for your anti-malaria drug (prophylactic), or course, you may have a different experience. We also took an anti-biotic (Doxycycline) as a backup, in case we did have problems with Malarone. We believe that you have to be careful about too much sunshine, if you take Doxycycline. CHECK WITH YOUR TRAVEL DOCTOR BEFORE MAKING A CHOICE How To Avoid Malaria PROTECTING YOURSELF AGAINST MALARIA IS IMPERATIVE ON A TRIP TO SOUTHERN AFRICA Malaria in South Africa: Introduction and Advice -2006 - may be out-of-date??? sulfadoxinepyrimethamine & chloroquine can no longer be used as a single treatment. Both mefloquine (mefliam) & doxycycline REQUIRE Prescriptions. Malaria & anti-malaria tablets (prophylaxis) for South Africa - either mefloquine (mefliam) or doxycycline Guidelines For the Prevention of MALARIA in SOUTH AFRICA Health Information for South Africa - CDC Travelers' Health South Africa Malaria Risk Areas Malaria - Kruger - virtualtourist Malaria - traveldoctor NOTE - temporarily borrowed from THIS paper - while safari planning: "Efficacy and adverse reactions of recommended prophylactic regimens more on: Doxycycline A high percentage of travellers who take malaria chemoprophylaxis will report side-effects, the majority of which are mild and self-limiting. In general, the incidence of mild to moderate and serious adverse events is similar for mefloquine and the combination of proguanil and chloroquine. The rate of serious adverse reactions is in the order of 1:10 000 for both regimens. However, the types of adverse events differ. The combination of proguanil and chloroquine commonly causes gastrointestinal adverse events, and mefloquine appears to cause more disabling neuropsychiatric events. Travellers discontinue their drugs because of adverse events at a similar rate for all the recommended regimens.

Mefloquine (Lariam or Mefaquin)

Mefloquine is active against P. falciparum parasites that are resistant to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and the other three plasmodial species that affect humans8. Weekly dosing should encourage compliance. It is recommended for use for up to 12 months but has been safely used for more than 2 years. Adverse effects associated with mefloquine include insomnia, strange dreams, mood changes, nausea, diarrhea and headache. These would usually be experienced within the first three weeks of medication and do not become worse in subsequent weeks of use. If they are not experienced during the first use of mefloquine they are unlikely to appear during subsequent use for prophylaxis. Severe neuropsychiatric reactions (psychosis, convulsions) are infrequent with prophylactic doses and occur in approximately 1/10 000 to 1/13 000 persons. The frequency of mild neuropsychiatric effects is probably much higher. These effects may be sufficiently severe for the individual to discontinue prophylaxis. To forestall this event it is suggested that when mefloquine is to be taken for the first time that prophylaxis should commence three weeks before exposure to malaria to enable a change to be made timeously to another drug should side effects occur. Rare cases of suicidal ideation and suicide have been reported, thought no relationship to mefloquine has been confirmed. There is inadequate experience of the safety of mefloquine taken during the first three months of pregnancy. It should not be used during this time but in the event of a pregnancy, available safety data does not support termination. Taking mefloquine while breastfeeding is not recommended because of lack of data. Mefloquine may cause spatial disorientation and lack of fine coordination and should not be used where fine coordination is required, e.g. for pilots, underwater diving. Personally, my opinion, I do not see who anyone could even prescribe Mefloquine (Lariam or Mefaquin). If you are going to use Mefloquine, I strongly suggest that you get some extra, and try taking it about 5 weeks before you go, for, say a week, to see if you can tolerate it.

Doxycycline

May cause an exaggerated sunburn reaction, which limits its usefulness in the tropics. Sunscreen is essential. For women, an antifungal medication should be included in the medical kit, in case of yeast infection. Doxycycline is effective against all four species of human malaria parasites and has comparable efficacy to mefloquine. Doxycycline also treats cholera. During cholera epidemics, 90 per cent of those who get ill would be okay if they drank large amounts of water. CHECK WITH A DOCTOR IF YOU FEEL YOU MAY HAVE CHOLERA. Doxycycline affects bone formation during early life and should not be given during pregnancy, breast-feeding and the first eight years of life. Adverse effects including gastrointestinal symptoms and candida infection of the gut and vagina and may be severe enough to discontinue prophylaxis. Severe skin sensitivity to sun burn may develop, excessive exposure should be avoided and the use of sunscreen preparations is advised. Other rare symptoms include dizziness, headache and blurred vision. There is limited experience with long-term use of more than 4-6 months." Mefloquine. (weekly). Start at least one week before entering a malaria area. Note that Mefloquine is NOT effect on Malaria on all countries (use Malarone) See also: Mefloquine for more information on Mefloquine Doxycycline. (daily). Start one day before entering a malaria area. See also: Doxycycline for more information on Doxycycline These regimes must be taken for FOUR weeks AFTER leaving the malaria area.

HIGH RISK MALARIA COUNTRIES (at least part of the Country)

KENYA, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zair, Zambia SOUTH AFRICA - North east, low altitude areas of Mpumalanga and Northern Provinces, Northeast KwaZulu-Natal as far south as the Tugela river. Risk IS present in Kruger National Park. Zimbabwe - The Zambezi Valley.

Preferable regimen:

WE HIGHLY RECOMMEND MALARONE. None of my party had problems with Malarone

PROPHYLACTICS RECOMMENDED FOR HIGH RISK COUNTRIES

DOXYCYCLINE

Doxycycline Doxycycline is related to Tetracycline. The most common reported side effect is increased sun sensitivity so make sure you take all precautions to avoid sunburn. Mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, trouble swallowing, or vaginal yeast infection are some other possible side effects. doxycycline - anytestkits Malaria in South Africa: Introduction and Advice - South Africa The length of the regimen can have adverse effects on the digestive tract, which can be alleviated to some degree with probiotics like Inteflora. (NO that's silly - just take over the counter Acidophilus or Bifidus) Some people prefer taking Doxycycline because it is both cheaper than Malarone and it is an antibiotic (temporary immune boost). It is probably also easier to find, locally (in Africa) than is Malarone, but I do NOT actually know if this is true. Other people prefer the more expensive Malarone because it requires less of an avoidance to sunlight (than Doxycycline) and because it is NOT an anti-biotic (they don't want the bugs in their bodies to build up immunities to anti-biotics unless anti-biotics are needed). OR

MEFLOQUINE = Lariam (mefloquine hydrochloride) = Mefaquin

Side effects include headache, nausea, dizziness, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, paranoia, vivid dreams and visual disturbances. If you're worried about the side effects, it's a good idea to start taking the tablets more than a week prior to your safari to see if/how it will affect you. Mefloquine may have severe and permanent adverse side effects. It is known to cause severe depression, anxiety, paranoia, aggression, nightmares, insomnia, seizures, birth defects, peripheral motor-sensory neuropathy,[2] vestibular (balance) damage and central nervous system problems. For a complete list of adverse physical and psychological effects - including suicidal ideation = see the most recent product information. Central nervous system events occur in up to 25% of people taking Lariam, such as dizziness, headache, insomnia, and vivid dreams. OR

MALARONE

Malarone = is a combination of two drugs (atovaquone and proguanil HCI). It's called Malanil in South Africa; both brands are manufactured by Glaxo Smith Kline. There is now a Generic Malarone in the USA (Indian company). WE USED MALARONE. NONE of my party of Five noticed any side effects. I took it with and without food - no problems. WE HIGHLY RECOMMEND MALARONE for your anti-malaria drug, or course, you may have a different experience. I also take an anti-biotic (Doxycycline) as a backup, in case I do have problems with Malarone. I believe that you have to be careful about too much sunshine, if you take Doxycycline. CHECK WITH YOUR TRAVEL DOCTOR BEFORE MAKING A CHOICE Some people prefer taking Doxycycline because it is both cheaper and it is an antibiotic (temporary immune boost). It is probably also easier to find, locally (in Africa) than is Malarone, but I do NOT actually know if this is true. Other people prefer the more expensive Malarone because it requires less of an avoidance to sunlight (than Doxycycline) and because it is NOT an anti-biotic (they don't want the bugs in their bodies to build up immunities to anti-biotics unless anti-biotics are needed). Side-effects (of Malarone), which are typically mild, may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, diarrhea, or dizziness. Serious adverse reactions are rare. Malarone (Atovaquone and Proguanil Hcl) Drug Information Malarone Information from Drugs.com Atovaquone - Wikipedia Malaria in South Africa: Introduction and Advice

ALTERNATE REGIMEN

Chloroquine PLUS Proguanil - (limited protection)

MALARIA in other African Countries

Zimbabwe - Areas below 1,200 metres - November to June. All year long in the Zambezi Valley where Doxycycline, Mefloquine or Malarone are preferable. Risk is negligible in Harare and Bulawayo. Risk in parts of the country Some chloroquine resistance present: Botswana, Zimbabwe - Areas below 1,200 metres - November to June. All year long in the Zambezi Valley where Doxycycline, Mefloquine or Malarone are preferable. Risk is negligible in Harare and Bulawayo.

WEST NILE VIRUS - Click here for information about West Nile Virus

MALARIA CHARITIES

I've done a little investigation of these charities - they seem legit, but check them yourself

Donate your unused computer cycles for work on beating Malaria What is malariacontrol.net? What is AFRICA@home? Against Malaria is an initiative of the Against Malaria Foundation Against Malaria Foundation Medicines for Malaria Venture - not actually a charity - developing Malaria vaccines Malaria No More UK THERE ARE LOTS OF OTHER GOOD, REPUTABLE, CHARITIES FIGHTING MALARIA

INDEX - MALARIA and RELATED INFORMATION

AFRICAN TRIP HEALTH ISSUES AFRICA Africa - Traveler's Health Information Complete AFRICAN SAFARI PLANNING | Atovaquone BITES - Treating & Identifying BOTSWANA Cell Phones - for use in AFRICA & London Cell Phones - International CHARITIES to fight Malaria CHIKUNGUNYA Virus Chills CLOTHES and SAFARI GEAR Convulsions CPAP and Battery powered CPAP/APAP DEET - (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) - Mosquito Repellent DEET SELLERS, of DENGUE FEVER Doxycycline Doxycycline - Advantages of Doxycycline - DIS-Advantages of Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - BOTSWANA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - KENYA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - NAMIBIA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - SOUTH AFRICA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - ZAMBIA Electric Outlet Shapes and Adapters - ZIMBABWE Electrical Connectors / Plug Types / Voltage Eastern Equine Encephalitis (sleeping sickness) Fever FILARIASIS GEAR, SAFARI Glenmark Pharma is producing GENERIC MALARONE in the USA GPS for Safaris HATS, SAFARI HEV = 400-500 nm (longer than UVA) - may cause Macular Degeneration Complete Insect Repellent & Insecticide Information Japanese Encephalitis KENYA - Complete Safari & Travel Information - Information that you REALLY MUST KNOW LYME Disease LYME DISEASE IN SOUTH AFRICA Malanil Malaria in HIGH RISK African Countries Malaria in KENYA Malaria in OTHER African Countries Malaria in SOUTH AFRICA VACCINATION FOR MALARIA WORKS MALARONE - WE HAD NO PROBLEMS WITH the PROPHYLACTIC "MALARONE" GENERIC MALARONE in the USA Mefloquine Metofluthrin - Insecticide repellent NOT applied to human skin Consumer Reports states that OFF (contains Metofluthrin) does not work very well. Click on the above link. MOSQUITOES - General Information Mosquito BITES - Treating Mosquito Borne Disease - REALLY COMPLETE Mosquito - DISEASES FROM Mosquito Netting MOSQUITO REPELLENTS & INSECTICIDES Mosquito (electrified) Zappers (swatters) Netting NEWS about Malaria & Mosquitoes OFF Clip-on mosquito protection uses Metofluthrin Consumer Reports states that OFF does not work very well. Click on the above link. OIL of LEMON EUCALYPTUS - OLE - a Repellent PERIPREL - Repellent Permethrin Insecticide - keep off your skin PICARIDIN (KBR3023, or Bayrepel) - REPELLENT Poisoning by DEET Poisoning by Insecticides Poisoning by METOFLUTHIN Poisoning by PICARIDIN (not very likely) Poisoning by PYRETHRIN Prophylactics / Malaria Preventative Medications Proquani HCL RID - Australian insect Repellent - said to also work on Tsetse Flies SAFARI GEAR St. Louis Encephalitis SOUTH AFRICA SUNGLASSES - What they should do SUNSCREEN - Complete Sunscreen Warnings, Information, Ingredients, Products & Resources Sweating SYMPTOMS of MALARIA TICKS - Complete TICK Information Tick BITES Tick DISEASES TICK REPELLENTS TRAVEL INFORMATION TRAVEL INSURANCE Travel SUPPLIES Travel WARNINGS (US State Department) HEV = 400-500 nm (longer than UVA) - may cause Macular Degeneration UV400 (blocks UVA, UVB and UVC = 100 nm to 400 nm, but NOT HEC) UVA UVB UVC VACCINATIONS for Kenya VACCINATION FOR MALARIA WORKS WEST NILE VIRUS World MOSQUITO DAY ZAMBIA ZIKA VIRUS ZIMBABWE I researched most of this information prior to our 30 day African photo safari. I created these websites ONLY to provide free information to help other people. I am NOT a business of any kind, and make NO money from these web pages. These are PERSONAL web pages - Feel free to link to any of my pages. Privacy Policy - we keep NO information about visitors Terms of Use We NEVER get paid anything for endorsements of any kind David Woodsmall - Main Web page